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The gene – FAM72A – facilitates production of high-quality antibodies by enabling the effect of an enzyme called AID (for Activation-Induced Deaminase), the researchers showed.
Immunologists have known for two decades that AID is essential to produce antibodies capable of clearing infections, but the full mechanism of its effect has remained unknown.
“Our findings answer the long-standing question of how AID does its work,” said Alberto Martin, a professor of immunology at the University of Toronto’s Temerty Faculty of Medicine.
“FAM72A helps AID to promote mutations in antibody genes that are essential for the development of effective antibodies,” he added.
Genetic mutations that lead to lasting changes in DNA occur through a process called mutagenesis. In the context of antibody development, mutagenesis unfolds largely through the AID-driven mechanisms called somatic hypermutation and class switch recombination — both of which help antibodies gain the diversity and potency they need to counter a wide range of pathogens.
The results published in the journal Nature will help researchers